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if there is sufficient locomotive braking power to safely stop the train. In yard switching, if
significant grades are present or for any reason there is the risk of a runaway car, air brakes shall
be charged on all cars. If it becomes necessary to move a car with brakes that do not function,
follow the local railroad operating directive. In no case will "hot work" be performed on
placarded railcars. Before a car is moved after having previously been spotted, all wheels should
be checked for the presence of wheel chocks and the hand brakes released at the appropriate time.
(2) Wheel chocks. Wheel chocks are used to restrain cars from movement when they
are spotted for loading, unloading, or other storage purposes. They are designed to prevent
wheel movement after the air brakes bleed off or after the hand brake is released. Wheel chocks
shall be painted a bright color and repainted if visibility diminishes. Some wheel chocks are
attached to targets that help to ensure visibility. Wheel chocks and hand brakes work together;
one should not be substituted for the other. The Installation Commander shall address the use of
chocks in their local SOPs.
(3) Derail devices. Derail devices are used to protect certain tracks from intrusion by
other rail equipment. They are often placed on track that contains grades leading from main line
type track. If in place they will derail a car or cars before the car(s) can foul the track being
protected. Derails shall be painted a bright color and repainted if visibility diminishes Figure 3-15
shows several types of derails and derail signs. The Installation Commander shall address the use
of derail devices in their local railroad operating directive.
(4) Use of roll bys. A roll by is a car allowed to roll free of a locomotive controlled
by someone riding the car and operating the hand brake. Rolls by shall not be used except where
a written waiver has been granted by the Installation Commander and shall only be employed
when no other way of executing the switching maneuver is possible. A waiver shall only be
granted for specific locations. The waiver request shall include the specific location and the
reason why a roll by is required. The Installation Commander shall not grant the waiver until a
thorough review has been conducted.
(5) Flying switching. A flying switch is a movement in which the locomotive is
uncoupled from a car, speeds up, and moves through a switch in time for the switch to be thrown
in the opposite direction for the moving car. Flying switches are extremely dangerous and shall
not be used.
(6) Setting of hand brakes. Hand brakes shall be set according to Section 3.l.f.3. An
adequate number shall be set to hold the cut of cars being spotted (at least one hand brake in five
(7) Air brakes. If air is being used, a service reduction to reduce brake pipe pressure
to 30 psi shall be made (after the hand brake(s) is set), on the car or cut of cars to be spotted.
The angle cock on the last car remaining with the locomotive shall be closed in preparation of the
pull away signal only after exhaust from the brake valve on the locomotive ceases, otherwise the
brakes on the car(s) being spotted may not be adequately set.
(8) Spotting locations. Cars shall not be spotted in such a manner as to foul switches,
crossovers, or turnouts. Railcars shall not be spotted within 40 feet of a grade crossing.
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