Quantcast Limitations - P-12820088

 

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T-45C TS INav 03; ADV INav-01
Use and Operation of TACAN, VOR, VOR/DME
5. Limitations
a. Line of sight
b. Standard Service Volume (SSV)
NOTE: SSV defines the reception limits of unrestricted
NAVAIDs which are usable for random/unpublished route
navigation.
The reason why federal airways are limited to a maximum
Fig 3: VOR
altitude of FL 450 is due to the service volume of VORs. The
Frequency Overlap
service volume is predicated on the limited number of available
VOR frequencies for airway navigation (total of 59). Present
FCC and FAA standards permit as many as 20 VORs to use
the same frequency. The problem with this is that the usable
range of VOR decreases with altitude due to overlapping
signals from VORs using the same frequency.
c.
From 18,000 ft AGL up to and including 45,000 ft AGL at radial
distances out to 130 nm
NOTE: Standard Service Volume limitations do not apply to
published IFR routes or procedures.
6. Identified by 3-letter aural Morse code identifier or recorded automatic
voice alternating with Morse code identifier
7. Most can be used to transmit voice communications to aircraft as
well as scheduled and/or urgent weather information. An example
is Hazardous In-flight Weather Advisory Service/HIWAS, a
program for broadcasting hazardous weather information
Fig 4: Cones of Confusion
(Significant Meteorological Information, Center Weather Advisories,
Airman’s Meteorological Information, Severe Weather Forecast
Alerts, and urgent Pilot Weather Reports) on a continuous basis
over selected VORs
8. There is a negligible “cone of confusion” over a VOR antenna. Due
to its size, station passage over a VOR is a recognized fix. Therefore,
“over the station holding” can be conducted directly over a VOR
station
Page 3-7
(2-02) Original


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