T-45C TS INav-05
TACAN/VOR Navigation and Holding Procedures
c. Maintain crab angle to keep CDI centered
NOTE: Use ground track marker on HSI page to
assist with determining and maintaining proper crab.
COMMON ERROR: Making too small a correction to
return to the radial.
Fig 3: Holding
Pattern Entry Diagram
A. Entry determination: referencing the HSI
NOTE: The following procedures govern a standard (right-
hand) holding pattern. For a nonstandard (left-hand)
pattern, the directions are reversed.
1. Visualize a straight line on HSI from aircraft heading to
bottom of instrument
2. Visualize a straight line on HSI from 70 degrees to right
of aircraft heading to 110 degrees left of aircraft heading
COMMON ERROR: Forgetting to reverse the layout of
entry patterns on the HSI for nonstandard holding.
COMMON ERROR: Not using heading for arrival at fix
in relation to holding radial to determine type of entry.
3. Determine entry type by angular difference between
holding radial and heading as it crosses holding fix
a. Parallel entry--perform parallel if holding radial is
within 110 degrees left of heading
b. Teardrop entry--perform if holding radial is within
70 degrees right of heading
c. Direct entry--perform if holding radial is outside an
area of 110 degrees to the left and 70 degrees to the
right of heading
COMMON ERROR: Determining the type of entry
from your initial heading to the fix and not your
heading at the fix. (Also dependent on holding radial
and direction to hold from the fix.)