Aero Chapter 03, High AOA/Stall/Spin
T-45 Aerodynamics Student Workbook
While spins are disorienting, forces on the pilot are tolerable and anti-spin controls, as specified in
NATOPS, can be maintained. Recovery is indicated in an upright spin by the AOA decreasing past 20
units. Inverted spin recovery is indicated by the AOA increasing past 5 units. The T-45 NATOPS Flight
Manuals specify the pilots procedures to recover from a departure, post-stall gyration, and spin. The
NATOPS departure/spin procedures must be memorized. There is not enough time in a departure or spin
to try to think through them.
Before OCF occurs,
locate and remember the
position of neutral stick
and rudder pedals so you
can accurately and
positively position the
AOA above stall
controls to neutral during
OCF. A small control
deflection can make a big
difference at high AOA.
Aircraft no longer responds to
DEPARTURE control inputs
The pilot should
neutralize lateral stick
and forcefully center the
POST - STALL AOA turn needle,
rudder pedals until it can
GYRATIONS and airspeed oscillation
be determined whether
the out-of-control motion
is a PSG or a spin, then
INCIPIENT AOA and turn needle
either maintain neutral
pegged; airspeed oscillation
ANTI - SPIN
controls in a PSG or
AOA and turn needle
apply anti-spin controls if
pegged; airspeed steady or
spinning (Figure 62).
Realize that your internal
sense of time may not be
Figure 62: STALL PROGRESSION DIAGRAM
accurate in a spin. Be
patient, you may have to
give the aircraft time to respond to the control inputs. Always remember, EJECT if out of control passing
10,000 ft AGL.
NATOPS DEPARTURE/SPIN PROCEDURE AND EXPLANATION
1. Controls - NEUTRALIZE (forcibly center rudder pedals)
It may be crucial that the controls are truly neutral. An inadvertent control input could lead to a spin or
delay recovery. Transients may require that the rudder pedals be forcibly centered. If the rudder
blows out, an inverted spin is likely.
2. Speed brakes - RETRACT
Extended speed brakes are destabilizing and may aggravate the departure and delay recovery.
3. Throttle - IDLE
Retarding the engine to idle minimizes engine problems but does not eliminate the potential for a
flameout or locked surge. The pilot should expect anomalies following any departure.
4. Check altitude, airspeed, AOA and turn needle.
These are the only instruments that need to be scanned.