Air Combat Maneuvering
bogey, you both overbank and pull 17 units, nose-low toward each other. Keep your nose on the bogey
while adjusting to maintain the 500-ft safety bubble. At this time, you must call the direction of the pass
and the bogey will acknowledge. If you do not call the pass direction, the bogey will either call the pass or
remind you to call it. If this happens, you must acknowledge. Just prior to the pass, begin an early turn,
taking out any existing lateral separation in excess of 500 ft. Early turning at the pass, no matter how
slight, provides you with some angular advantage on the bogey early in the game.
Three types of engagements can develop following a neutral pass: two-circle, one-circle, and vertical. As
mentioned before, a two-circle fight results from turning in the same direction, e.g., the fighter and bogey
are both in a right turn. A one-circle fight results from both fighter and bogey turning in opposite
directions, e.g., the fighter turns right and the bogey turns left. At the initial pass of a vertical fight, at least
one aircraft pulls up vertically. A vertical fight is similar to a position or one-circle fight.
A two-circle fight allows the fighter to maintain energy but takes a longer time to develop than a one-circle
fight. It also provides more opportunities to bug out and, if available, will exploit the superior capabilities of
forward-quarter weapons. Fortunately, it is a forgiving fight allowing you the opportunity to correct
mistakes before they become critical. The two-circle fight is usually a higher g profile and covers a greater
distance than the one-circle fight. The combination of higher g and greater range makes it difficult for you
to keep sight of the bogey and assess his energy.
At the pass, adjust your lift vector taking out any lateral/vertical separation while maintaining the 500-ft
bubble. Turn to cross the bogeys tail nose-low. Maintain cornering speed, maximum g, and
approximately 20 degrees nose-low. Look aft in the direction of the turn to acquire sight of the bogey.
The bogey should first appear a quarter turn across the circle and become progressively easier to see as
the turn continues. If you lose sight, call No joy, and maintain g to prevent an unintentional arcing turn.
Call Tally when you regain sight. Continue your nose-low, energy-sustaining turn to pass the bogey
head-on again. If the bogey has generated angles at the second pass and you have executed a proper
energy-sustaining turn, he is depleting his energy in an attempt to gain angles early. Proceed to take out
the lateral separation and continue in the two-circle fight. At the third pass, you may find that the bogey
has generated even more angles. Assuming you have continued to turn efficiently, you should have
gained a sufficient energy advantage over the bogey to begin a vertical pitchup to convert the energy to an
angular advantage. Since the bogey has bled his energy during his earlier attempts to gain angles, he will
be unable to follow you into your vertical move. Start your vertical pitchup as the bogey crosses your six.
Converting airspeed to altitude will provide you with the vertical separation necessary to maneuver inside
the bogeys turn (the egg), thereby providing you with the position advantage.
If both you and the bogey are employing this nose-low, rate tactic, altitude will become a factor. You both
will be forced to forfeit available g to maintain speed and either assume arcing turns or convert to another
type of fight.
Your turn radius relative to that of the bogeys largely determines the potential for gaining an angular
advantage. A one-circle fight allows you to employ a turning capability advantage you might have over the
bogey. The one-circle fight allows the greatest angular gains per knot of speed loss because of reduced
turn radius and slower speed. Unlike the two-circle fight, you can more easily keep sight of the bogey and
eliminate the bogeys forward-quarter missile capabilities because of reduced separation. Unfortunately,
the slower speeds inherent in the one-circle fight make it difficult to disengage. The one-circle fight is less
forgiving, allowing you limited time to correct mistakes.
Take out any lateral/vertical separation that might exist at the pass. If the bogey is executing a turn across
your tail, reverse quickly in his direction. Delaying your reversal allows the bogey precious seconds to
T-45C Revision 1
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