Aircraft maneuverabilitythe capability to perform changes in altitude, airspeed, and direction
depends on both fixed and variable factors. The fixed factors are aircraft design (weight, wing
loading, power capabilities, and structural limitations) and aircraft configuration (bombs, rockets,
external tanks, etc.). Variable factors include altitude, airspeed, AOA, and g. Both turn radius and
turn rate are dependent on TAS and g (the ratio of lift to weight) with constant altitude. On a given
wing at a specific AOA, the coefficient of lift is constant regardless of airspeed, gross weight, and
altitude. For turns, lift must exceed weight, and g loads must be greater than 1. As g increases,
AOA increases. The aircraft that can sustain the most g at a constant TAS will have the smallest
turn radius. TAS has a greater effect on turn radius (TAS2/g) than on turn rate (g/TAS). Instanta-
neous turn rate is the maximum available turn rate at any given airspeed without regard to energy
sustainability. The aircraft that can sustain the most g at a given TAS will have the fastest turn rate.
The effective application of turn rate/radius principles depends on practice.