If the wingmans vertical separation is less than 1,000 ft, but he is on the bearing line with proper
distance abeam, he adds power and raises the nose to climb while maintaining 300 KIAS. He
readjusts power when back in position.
The amount of any correction depends on the amount of the positional error. Small errors require
minor maneuvering to finesse the aircraft into proper combat spread. Trading altitude for airspeed is
more fuel efficient than adjusting power. Gross errors require more aggressive flying to correct into
COMBAT SPREAD TURNS
All combat maneuvering is designed to maintain maximum maneuvering potential when a section
performs turns. Combat spread turns are used to turn the section as much as 180 degrees during
patrolling flights. There are three types: 1) cruise turns used for navigation, 2) shackle turns used to
align or realign the section, and 3) engaging turns used in a high-threat environment to actually
engage the enemy.
There are three types of cruise turns: called, uncalled, and check. Called and uncalled cruise turns
turn the section 90 degrees, either into (Figure 5) or away (Figure 6) from the wingman. Check turns
turn the section 30 degrees or less (Figure 7).
Called/Uncalled Cruise Turns
The lead initiates called cruise turns by transmitting, [Call sign], 90 right/left. The wingman
acknowledges by calling [Two], and the lead then initiates the turn into or away from the wingman.
Uncalled cruise turns into or away are executed in the same manner as called cruise turns, except
that no radio communication is used. The lead initiates the turn by giving a wing flash in the
direction of the turn instead of a radio call. Upon recognizing the wing flash, the wingman executes
the turn either into or away, when the lead rolls into his 30-degree AOB turn. If the wingman does
not see the wing flash, he soon discovers the lead turning. If the wingman does not recognize the
wing flash direction, he must assume a turn away to prevent the section from being separated.
Assuming a turn away, the wingman will still maintain sight of the lead and be able to react when he
recognizes the direction of turn.
The lead initiates cruise turns into the wingman (Figure 5) by transmission/response or wing flash.
The lead begins a 30-degree angle of bank (AOB) turn into the wingman while maintaining his
altitude and 300 KIAS. The wingman simultaneously initiates his turn with a 10-20 degree AOB turn,
varying his AOB according to his distance abeam from the lead. The wingman passes approximately
2,000 ft ahead of the lead with a 15-20 degree heading differential, maintaining his AOB until the
lead disappears below and behind him. As the lead passes below and behind the wingmans six
oclock, he checks the wingmans six and calls, Six clear. As the lead disappears, the wingman
counts 2-4 seconds, then rolls into a 45-60 degree AOB turn until acquiring sight of the lead. After
reacquiring, he will check the leads six and call, Visual, six clear. The wingman adjusts AOB and
nose attitude for the remainder of the turn to arrive in combat spread as the lead rolls out of his 90-