Operational Navigation Flight Training Instruction
code and high, low, or level call. If the lead is visual, he can call a shackle to help his wingman regain
combat spread. If the wingman is visual and the lead blind, he should recommend a shackle and call the
"reverse" for the lead. This type of shackle with one wingman blind could end up with the visual wingman
calling or turning the blind wingman's jet into position. An example would be: "Loco, give me a hard
left...roll out...come hard right - I'm at your right 3 o'clock high." This will result in as little time as possible
spent with one wingman blind.
CASE 4. (Figure 19) Egress direction perpendicular
to attack axis with wing on the inside of the formation
also has some unique considerations. The lead will
typically be the first across the target and will now be
nearly pointed in the direction of the egress as he
recovers from his attack. Lead will have to
immediately delay with a level hard turn away from
the egress heading to allow for his wingman to catch
up. The lead must reacquire his wingman to judge
the reverse and turn all the way through the egress
heading to establish a cut into the wingman
preventing the section from getting too wide. It will
always be required for the lead to delay to some
degree due to the wingman having more degrees of
turn to the egress heading. The wingman moving
from the inside to the outside must be aware that as
soon as he has recovered the nose on the horizon,
he must immediately execute a level hard turn to
egress. This will minimize the horizontal (wide)
separation that will occur due to the lead's delay
in this attack is greatly increased so again,
establishing who is visual and taking charge of the
section is key to establishing good combat spread
Figure 19: TARGET EGRESS; LEAD DELAY
and mutual support.
There are infinite variables in all of the above cases, which will require quick thinking, reacting, and
flexibility. As the lead in any of the recoveries, initiate the delay you think is required, then after one good
maneuver, focus on being a stable platform for the wingman to work from (300 KIAS, heading the direction
you called). It is important to be confident and decisive in your maneuvers as the lead. Be observant and
learn from your decisions.
High cover is used by the wingman for any unsafe situation. Any of the following would constitute a high
Wingman has no visual on the lead.
Wingman has no tally on the target.
Wingman unable to roll in high (clouds).
Wingman loses situational awareness.
Wingman dive angle greater than 35 degrees.