The VOR holding clearance is essentially the same as that for TACAN/VOR DME except that VOR
holding will not include leg lengths. Unlike DME-based patterns, VOR patterns are located over the
station because there is no distance reference available to establish the holding fix (Figure 27).
The difference between VOR holding and TACAN/VOR DME holding is that instead of measuring leg
lengths with DME, youll have to time the legs. Leg times are 1-1/2 minutes above 14,000 ft MSL and 1
minute at 14,000 ft MSL and below. These times apply only to the initial outbound leg and all subsequent
inbound legs. You may have to adjust your outbound time (due to head or tail wind components) to
achieve the necessary inbound time. Outbound leg timing begins when you are abeam the fix or when
you roll wings level out of the turn, whichever occurs last.
Timed Turn Point
INBOUND 270 HOLDING COURSE
Figure 27: NON-DME HOLDING PATTERN
General Holding Procedures
The basic procedures for flying a holding pattern are as follows: First, begin slowing to holding airspeed
no sooner than 3 minutes from the holding fix. Next, from your holding clearance, or published holding
procedure, determine the type of holding to be used. From your heading determine the appropriate entry
procedure. Upon arrival at the holding fix, note the time and initiate the entry procedure. If timing is used
for the pattern vice DME, note the time wings level or abeam the holding fix whichever occurs last on the
entry procedure heading outbound and on subsequent outbound orbits. Set inbound holding course in the
HSI course select window. Turn inbound when the appropriate time outbound has elapsed for the holding
altitude and begin timing inbound wings level. All turns in holding are made at 3 degrees per second
(standard rate) but do not exceed 30 degrees AOB. Communicate entering holding, if required, once
established in the pattern. On subsequent orbits adjust heading and or timing as required for winds to
maintain a holding pattern track and time.
Communication Procedures For Holding
For a normal holding pattern with a charted destination, the controller will not necessarily provide
instructions unless they are requested by the pilot or the controller deems it necessary. If the destination
is not charted the controller will provide fix, direction from fix, radial or bearing, leg length if DME, altitude
if different than present assigned, and an EFC time or expected further routing (EFR). The controller will
only indicate turn direction if holding is nonstandard by stating Left Turns in the clearance, at the pilots
request, or if the controller considers it necessary.