Basic Instrument Maneuvers
While flying under instrument conditions utilizing all the instruments available, you can readily see that all
corrections for a desired performance and attitude must be positive, well founded, and smoothly executed.
You have seen while practicing full panel instrument flying that you must have and use the following:
(1) a rapid scan of the instrument panel, (2) positive corrections with the controls, and (3) confidence in
you ability to fly under instrument conditions. Even when the aircrafts instruments are functioning
properly, you have learned to monitor angle of bank, nose attitude, power setting, and general cockpit
procedures more closely while flying instruments than while flying contact.
You should realize that while operating under instrument conditions when any of the instruments are
inoperative, the task of maintaining any attitude and performance becomes difficult. The situation in which
an instrument or a group of instruments becomes inoperative is referred to as a partial panel condition.
Practice under partial panel conditions is not only desired but mandatory if you are to become an
accomplished instrument pilot.
For the purpose of this course of instruction, you will consider partial panel flying as flight under instrument
conditions wherein you control the aircraft utilizing all the attitude, performance, and power instruments
except the AI (and HSI in case of SAHRS failure).
On instrument flight, failure of the A.C. power supply for the ADI or the HSI could occur at any time,
therefore, you must be ready to continue controlled flight while handicapped by the loss of these
instruments. In the event that you allow the aircraft to enter an unusual attitude, positive recovery
methods must be applied to return the aircraft to the desired altitude and heading. These recovery
methods are discussed. You must apply yourself at this time to the fundamental procedures of basic
attitude instrument flight under partial panel conditions.
A review of Sensations of Flight under instrument conditions is suggested. A thorough understanding of
why you must correctly interpret and believe the instrument panel is mandatory. You should realize that to
discard completely those body sensations, indications of attitude through control pressure, etc., is not
completely warranted. However, because these sensations of flight can give you erroneous indications of
aircraft attitude, especially while flying partial panel, you should rely completely on the instrument
Necessary control pressures will be recognized through experience. Perfect trim technique is mandatory
when flying partial panel. You must remember that all partial panel instruments have a tendency to lag.
Therefore, over-controlling is an ever present hazard. To avoid over-controlling, you must avoid large or
rapid control movements. After a correction has been initiated, time must be allowed for instrument
indications to catch up to the aircrafts new performance; do not apply an ever increasing correction. In
other words, smoothly set and hold a specific attitude on the STBY AI, allow time for VSI and AOA to
stabilize. Fine tune attitude as necessary with small changes.
The amount of stick movement which should be applied will depend on the attitude of the aircraft. With
too large a stick movement, there will be a rapid change of attitude; conversely, with a small stick
movement, only a small attitude change will result. There are no set rules which can be given as to the
amount of movement required, however, with experience, the amount of movement will become an
educated guess. At no time should an additional correction be initiated before the original correction has
had sufficient time to indicate the magnitude of progress.
Compared to full panel attitudes, partial panel attitude will be approximately 3-7 degrees higher. However,
calibrate you standby ADI by noting the attitude for level flight as a baseline to work from.