Basic Instrument Maneuvers
UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY (PARTIAL PANEL)
Partial panel unusual attitude recoveries employ the same procedures as described above, except that
you will derive attitude information from the standby AI instead of the ADI.
Because of the standby AIs smaller size and different location, you will have to adjust your scan pattern.
Resist any tendency to refer to the ADI. You may tend to overcontrol the aircraft during a recovery when
using the standby AI because the relative amount of displacement appears to be less than you would see
when using the ADI. Additionally, you will have to look carefully at the standby AI when determining your
attitude because it is somewhat harder to read than the ADI.
TRANSITIONS (CLEAN TO DIRTY)
Reduce power to idle and extend the speed brakes if necessary. Slow to 200 KIAS and note level flight
attitude on the ADI. Select gear down and flaps to half (if required, flaps may be lowered, but not raised,
in a turn). The increased lift and drag combination causes a ballooning effect that must be countered
with firm forward stick force to maintain attitude and prevent climbing. Wait for stick pressure to dampen
out before selecting full flaps, if desired. Again, use forward stick pressure to counter the nose pitch up
and maintain altitude.
As stick forces settling, trim nose up as aircraft decelerates. As airspeed approaches 160 KIAS, increase
power for 150 KIAS (see table Approximate Fuel Flow To Maintain Level Flight). Decelerate to optimum
AOA/airspeed (no sooner than 10 nm, 30 degrees of FAC) by reducing power, adding nose up trim to
maintain level flight and add power according to the table for Approximate Fuel Flow To Maintain Level
Flight found later in this chapter. Do not decelerate below 150 KIAS airspeed until the landing checklist is
complete (except for the AOA check). The deceleration should be gradual to prevent settling (meaning
the aircraft is slowing and or descending). Significant power-on corrections will be required to stop
settling. The large power addition must be followed immediately by a large counter correction.
Subsequent corrections should dampen out (become smaller), bringing the power back to the appropriate
OPTIMUM AOA DESCENT
Once established in level flight with desired configuration at optimum AOA, extend speed brakes to begin
descent. Apply forward stick pressure and/or trim to counter nose pitch and influence the nose down
toward desired VSI. Initially, this will cause a fast indication. As stick pressure subsides, retrim nose up
for optimum AOA and readjust power to maintain desired VSI. Coordinated power and attitude
adjustments will be required throughout the descent. Use a technique of anticipating power corrections to
bracket the AOA to optimum.
When the AOA and VSI needles are moving in opposing directions, more abrupt and larger power
corrections are necessary. For example, descent rate increasing (VSI needle moving down) and AOA
increasing (AOA needle moving up) requires a significant power addition. Lead the counter correction by
reducing the power when the AOA is breaking before it passes through optimum to fast. All pitot static
instruments have a certain lag time. You must anticipate the re-correction before the slow becomes a
fast. Add power back on to maintain optimum and fine tune as necessary. The goal here is to lead
power and coordinated attitude adjustments so that the corrections are on before the AOA reaches its
peak or valley. This technique should continually decrease the amplitude of VSI and AOA fluctuation.
When descent rate is decreasing (VSI needle moving up) and AOA decreasing (needle moving down),
make a large power reduction along with forward stick pressure to influence the nose and descent rate
back down. Add power before AOA peaks at optimum. Reduce power and apply coordinated back stick
to stabilize at optimum AOA.