The pilot is required to report the time and altitude or flight level upon reaching a holding fix to which
cleared and to report leaving the holding fix. However, these reports may be omitted by pilots involved in
instrument training at military facilities when radar service is being provided. If the holding fix is the
clearance limit (EFC assigned, and not cleared for approach), then the fix is a compulsory reporting point.
EXAMPLE: KATO TWO ZERO ONE, BIGFOOT, FLIGHT LEVEL TWO ONE ZERO, TIME ONE THREE
FIVE ZERO ZULU
Once cleared for the approach, penetrate upon arrival at the IAF (you need not make a complete turn in
holding). See Penetration from Holding.
If you have been cleared to a holding fix or have not received further clearance while en route, begin
slowing to holding airspeed no sooner than three minutes prior to a holding fix.
Since holding is a delaying or loitering maneuver until further clearance is received, it is flown at an
airspeed approximating maximum endurance. Maximum holding airspeed for this aircraft as published by
the FAA is 230 KIAS. Maximum endurance airspeed in the T-45A is 14 units, for simplicity, procedural
holding airspeed for the T-45A is 200 KIAS regardless of altitude, not to exceed 14 units AOA. If
turbulence is encountered hold at 250 KIAS per NATOPS and notify ATC. The T-45A NATOPS
recommended turbulence penetration airspeed is 250 KIAS. When higher speeds are no longer
necessary, return to normal holding airspeed and notify ATC.
To enter holding, use one of three possible procedures, depending on your heading relative to the holding
pattern when you arrive over the fix. (The discussions of entry procedures, on the following pages,
assume a standard [right-hand] pattern; reverse the turns for a nonstandard [left-hand] pattern.) In each
procedure, you cross the fix and turn outbound on the appropriate heading. At holding fixes that are not
over NAVAIDs, an outbound offset should be determined prior to the entry (Figure 28). Turn inbound to
intercept the holding course at the appropriate DME or time (Figures 29 and 30).