HIGH AND SLOW: If your aircraft is not excessively slow, you may need only to lower your nose
attitude to initiate the correction. However, if it is excessively slow, you will also have to add power.
Readjusting the attitude and the power should move the ball down toward the center.
If your aircraft accelerates to on-speed before the ball reaches the center, a small power reduction is
necessary. If the AOA continues to indicate that you are slow, add power as the ball approaches the
center to stop the excessive rate of descent and accelerate your aircraft to the proper AOA.
LOW AND FAST: Raise the nose to decelerate to optimum AOA. If the aircraft slows to on-speed
AOA prior to the ball being centered, add power to continue the ball movement and to maintain on-
speed. With the ball centered, reduce the power to reestablish your glideslope and adjust your nose
attitude to maintain optimum AOA. If youre still fast when the ball reaches center, readjust the nose
attitude and reduce the power if necessary to maintain a centered ball and to decelerate the aircraft to
optimum AOA. Approaching proper AOA, add power to stop the deceleration and to maintain proper
CAUTION: Never accept a low ball. If you are low, make corrections immediately. Do not
reduce the power until the ball is centered.
One mistake often made by pilots is to wait for noticeable ball movement before making a correction rather
than making a correction when they think they need one. Another common approach error made by pilots
is to not make the third correction. If this correction is not made, the original error will re-develop. Make
corrections based on seat of the pants feel prior to ball movement. Remember, the ball tells you where
you are; seat of the pants feel tells you where youre going.
You will practice waveoffs, touch and go, and full-stop landings in two configurations, full flap/slat and no
flap/slat or speed brakes. You will also perform full flap/slat roll and go landings. The roll and go is
performed to demonstrate engine acceleration characteristics and the distance required to take off after a
go-around is initiated from an attempted full-stop landing.
A waveoff is mandatory when its directed by the control tower, the LSO, your instructor, or the wheels
watch/RDO. When a waveoff is directed, you should act immediately. Do not hesitate, execute waveoff
procedures and acknowledge the waveoff on the radio. Any questions can be answered when you are
safe on deck. Additionally, you may execute a waveoff any time that you believe a safe landing cannot be
You may be told to wave off for several reasons. The RDO may give you a waveoff for an unsafe pattern,
most often due to an excessive overshooting start. You may also be waved off for a poor patternfor
example, being too long in the groove. Or the tower may give you a waveoff if runway conditions make a
landing unsafe. In any case, you will receive the waveoff signal over the radio or by the waveoff lights on
the Fresnel lens.