Constant Airspeed Climbs and Descents
The split-S is the reverse of the Immelmann turn. Enter the maneuver from level flight; raise the nose
10-15 degrees above the horizon, roll inverted, and pull the aircraft through a 180 degree vertical turn.
You will lose as much as 6,000 ft of altitude while performing the split-S (Figure 10g).
Complete the prestall and aerobatic checklist prior to performing the split-S. Begin the maneuver at
180 KIAS, on altitude, and lined up on a reference heading. Pull the nose to 10-15 degrees above the
horizon, reduce the power to idle, and roll inverted, using ailerons and rudder. Gently but expeditiously
pull to optimum AOA. Maintain optimum AOA as your airspeed increases. Maintain wings level and your
heading throughout the maneuver. The maneuver is complete when you are in level flight going in the
To minimize loss of altitude, it is very important that you immediately pull and maintain optimum AOA after
rolling inverted until reaching 4-g and then hold 4-g until upright. Beginning the pull before getting inverted
will result in not staying on heading. Delaying the pull to optimum AOA will greatly increase altitude loss.
Figure 10g: SPLIT-S