Constant Airspeed Climbs and Descents
Constant rate descent entry and exit:
Throttle: Reduce to 700 pph
Pitch: Adjust to maintain 200 KIAS (approximately 1-2 degrees nosedown)
Trim: Adjust for airspeed
VSI: Maintain 1,000-fpm descent
Level off: Lead by 10 percent of VSI
Throttle: Add power to approximately 1,100 pph
Pitch: Raise to level flight attitude
Trim: Adjust for level flight
An essential element of many instrument procedures, level turns establish the foundation on which you
will build more complex maneuvers. The key to executing these maneuvers successfully is to know the
procedures and to integrate control and scan efficiently.
As you roll into a turn, the vertical component of lift will decrease, requiring a nose attitude correction to
maintain a constant altitudeand, of course, the amount of correction required will increase as the turn
becomes steeper. As the bank angle and aft stick pressure increase, airspeed will tend to decrease, so
you will have to add power to maintain airspeed.
Prior to entering a turn, trim your aircraft on the correct heading, airspeed, and altitude. When you
transition into a turn, use the ADI display to establish the proper bank and pitch references, cross-check
altitude trend indicator and VSI for a level turn. After you are established in the turn, include the airspeed
trend indicator in your scan. Monitor the ADI display heading scale for roll-out point. Since the ADI
display heading scale only shows +/- 15 degrees of heading from the heading reference, you will need to
anticipate when your roll-out point will come into view or cross-check the HSI display to monitor the
approach of your roll-out point. During the roll-out, use the ADI display to monitor both bank and pitch. As
with all other instrument maneuvers, trim throughout the turn to keep pressure off the stick.
For turns of less than 30 degrees of heading change, use a bank angle that equals that change. For
example, if a heading change from 020 degrees to 045 degrees were required (a 25-degree change), you
would use a bank angle of 25 degrees. If the heading change is 30 degrees or greater, use a bank angle
of 30 degrees.
Prior to entering the turn, you should be in straight-and-level flight with trim properly set. As you roll into
the turn, you will lose some of the vertical component of lift, so youll have to add power and aft stick (trim)
Use a lead point of approximately one-third of the angle of bank for initiating your roll-out. As you roll out
of the turn, the vertical component of lift will increase and the aircraft will have a tendency to climb. To
counteract this, lower the nose attitude back to level flight reference and reduce power to the pre-turn
setting. Any aft stick or trim added during the turn will have to come out when the turn is complete.
Heading change of 30 degrees or more: 30 degrees AOB
Heading change of less than 30 degrees: AOB equal to heading change
Throttle: Increase as needed to maintain airspeed