If, during an actual emergency, the landing environment is not in sight at decision height, or a safe landing
cannot be completed, execute a waveoff as follows: retract the speed brakes, raise the gear and slowly
position the nose to a climb attitude. When above 300 ft AGL and indicating a positive rate of climb, raise
the flaps (140 KIAS minimum). Power should not be reset unless a positive rate of climb is not achieved.
If unable to climb, a slow, smooth power addition to the minimum rpm required for climb should be made.
PARTIAL PANEL APPROACHES
In the T-45C you will be performing partial panel (standby AI) approaches which will require a major
change in your scan. Depending on the failure, a frozen attitude indication or an MFD failure, you may
have to get some or all information that is on the ADI display from the standby instruments (attitude,
airspeed, VSI, and altitude). Heading and navigation information, except for ILS, is on the HSI display. If
both MFDs fail, you will have no navigation information and will have to rely on radar vectors to a PAR or
ASR approach. See ADI Display Failure and Partial Panel.
Visual maneuvers, IFR procedures executed in VMC conditions, are included here because once you
reach the MAP or are cleared by ATC for a visual approach, you will complete your approach and landing
VFR. It is important that you adjust your rate of descent to arrive at the MDA well ahead of reaching the
MAP so that you have time to visually acquire the field. Non-precision approaches that have a visual
descent point (VDP) require you to remain at the MDA until the visual descent point is passed. During low
visibility, avoid the tendency to duck under or go low during the final approach to touchdown.
The contact approach is an IFR procedure you can request when you are operating on an IFR flight plan
in VMC conditions. To request a contact approach, you must be clear of the clouds with at least 1 sm of
visibility and have an unobstructed view of the ground. In a contact approach, you may deviate from the
published approach procedure and proceed to landing via visual references. You may not perform a
contact approach to an airport that lacks an authorized instrument approach procedure or conduct an
approach to one airport and then, when in the clear, discontinue that approach and proceed to another
airport. The pilot must specifically request it and obtain clearance from approach control. During a
contact approach, you are still operating under IFR, and ATC will ensure your separation from other
aircraft. However, you are responsible for your own obstruction clearance. Radar service, if you are
receiving it, will be terminated when you are told to contact the tower.
In a visual approach, an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, operating in VMC conditions and having received an
Air Traffic Control authorization, may deviate from the prescribed instrument approach procedures and
proceed to the airport of destination by maintaining VFR conditions. ATC may initiate a visual approach,
but you are never required to accept it.
Certain conditions must be met before you can fly a visual approach: 1) the field or a preceding aircraft
must be in sight, 2) the ceiling must be at least 1,000 ft AGL, and 3) there must be at least 3 sm visibility.
The circling approach is used to align aircraft with the proper runway at the end of an instrument
approach. The runway is often not the same one to which the instrument approach was flown. The
minimums for a circling approach differ from the others published for a given runway. Circling minimums
are higher than other instrument minimums and require you to remain VMC underneath while
maneuvering to land.
Once you have elected to conduct a circling approach and have obtained clearance, descend to the
circling minimums and visually acquire the runway. The applicable minimums are those published for the
approach flown, and not necessarily the landing runway.