Communication Procedures For Holding
For a normal holding pattern with a charted destination, the controller will not necessarily provide
instructions unless they are requested by the pilot or the controller deems it necessary. If the destination
is not charted, the controller will provide fix, direction from fix, radial or bearing, leg length if DME, altitude
if different than present assigned, and an EFC time or expected further routing (EFR). The controller will
only indicate turn direction if holding is nonstandard by stating, Left Turns, in the clearance at the pilots
request or if the controller considers it necessary.
The pilot is required to report the time and altitude or flight level upon reaching a holding fix to which
cleared and to report leaving the holding fix. However, these reports may be omitted by pilots involved in
instrument training at military facilities when radar service is being provided. If the holding fix is the
clearance limit (EFC assigned, and not cleared for approach), then the fix is a compulsory reporting point.
EXAMPLE: KATO TWO ZERO ONE, BIGFOOT, FLIGHT LEVEL TWO ONE ZERO, TIME ONE THREE
FIVE ZERO ZULU.
Once cleared for the approach, penetrate upon arrival at the IAF (you need not make a complete turn in
holding). See Penetration from Holding.
If you have been cleared to a holding fix or have not received further clearance while en route, begin
slowing to holding airspeed no sooner than three minutes prior to a holding fix. Since holding is a
delaying or loitering maneuver until further clearance is received, it is flown at an airspeed approximating
maximum endurance. Maximum holding airspeed for this aircraft as published by the FAA is 230 kts.
Maximum endurance airspeed in the T-45C is 14 units; for simplicity, procedural holding airspeed for the
T-45C is 200 KIAS regardless of altitude, not to exceed 14 units AOA. If turbulence is encountered, hold
at 250 KIAS per NATOPS and notify ATC. The T-45C NATOPS recommended turbulence penetration
airspeed is 250 KIAS. When higher speeds are no longer necessary, return to normal holding airspeed
and notify ATC.
To enter holding, use one of three possible procedures, depending on your heading relative to the holding
pattern when you arrive over the fix. (The discussions of entry procedures on the following pages assume
a standard [right-hand] pattern; reverse the turns for a nonstandard [left-hand] pattern.) In each
procedure, you cross the fix and turn outbound on the appropriate heading. At holding fixes that are not
over NAVAIDs, an outbound offset should be determined prior to the entry (Figure 31). Turn inbound to
intercept the holding course at the appropriate DME or time (Figures 29 and 30).