AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft flight instruments are divided into three categories according to their specific function: control
instruments, performance instruments, and position instruments. Except for engine instruments, all
primary instrument flight information is presented on either the ADI display or the HSI display. The engine
instruments are on the right side of the instrument panel and the standby instruments, airspeed, altitude
display, attitude indicator, and vertical speed indicator (VSI) are located on the left side of the instrument
panel. The magnetic compass is located on the canopy bow. Refer to the Forward and Aft Cockpit
foldout in the T-45C NATOPS of specific instrument location.
The control instruments enable you to provide a proper combination of pitch, roll, yaw (attitude), and
power control to achieve the desired aircraft performance. These instruments include: the ADI display,
rpm gauge, fuel flow gauge, and the slip indicator.
The performance instruments indicate how the aircraft is performing as a result of control changes. These
instruments include: airspeed, the various heading indicators (magnetic compass, HSI display, and ADI
display), vertical speed indicator, angle of attack indicator, clock, and turn needle. Although the altitude
display is primarily used as a position instrument, in some maneuvers it can be used as a cross-check on
The position instruments convey the aircrafts location in space and will determine what control changes
are required to achieve the desired aircraft performance. These instruments include: altitude, bearing
pointers, TACAN and Waypoint data blocks, Planimetric or Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) course lines,
ILS azimuth and glideslope deviation bars. A course deviation situation steering arrow, and azimuth and
glideslope deviation bars are also displayed on the HUD.