As you fly in close proximity to one another, you need to be cognizant of more than just individual
procedures. As lead, you must remember that you have at least one wingman and any action you take
affects him. As wingman, you must have situational awareness at all times. If either of you forgets,
the potential for a midair exists.
Within this FTI, procedures for specific emergency situations have been explained where they are most
likely to occur. In this section, we will provide some focus on those procedures, as well as additional
procedures for other potentially dangerous situations.
Specific formation abort procedures are referenced under "Section Daytime Interval Takeoff," "Division
Daytime Interval Takeoff Procedures," and "Night Formation Interval Takeoff Procedures." The lead
should be prepared, decisive, and ready to follow NATOPS abort procedures. The wingman must
remember that if the lead aborts, he must provide clearance for the lead to move to the centerline.
Sympathetic aborts above 50 KIAS should not occur.
If a formation flight inadvertently enters a cloud and it is obvious that IFR conditions will prevail more than
a moment, the flight lead transitions to instrument flight. The wingman will maintain a good IFR parade
position on the aircraft ahead. The lead should determine the best way to exit the cloud and, if necessary,
reverse his heading in a shallow, gentle turn to exit the cloud. In division, the lead should turn away
from the section allowing Dash-4 to stay up on the power, or detach the section prior to the possibility of a
lost sight within the division.
Specific lost sight procedures are referenced under "Section Daytime Flight Procedures" and "Night
Formation Flight Procedures." Emphasis remains on 1) transmitting lost sight to your lead or wingman,
and 2) following the briefed procedure.
The first consideration after a midair collision is either to regain control if the aircraft can still be flown or
to eject if control is impossible. If your aircraft is out of control, follow NATOPS ejection criteria. If
possible, slow flight the damaged aircraft at altitude following NATOPS procedures. Make shallow turns
in both directions to determine landing characteristics. The pilots of the damaged aircraft must decide if
they can land safely. Depending on the situation, return to home field or proceed to the nearest suitable
field for landing. Transmit the situation to the controlling agency, using Guard frequency, if necessary.
AIRCRAFT MALFUNCTIONS IN FLIGHT
When any member of a flight develops an emergency requiring him to land, the instructional flight will
be terminated. The aircraft with the emergency will proceed directly to its point of intended landing,
escorted by another aircraft--a dual flight, if possible. Escorts should remain well clear of emergency
aircraft, unless a visual inspection is required, so as not to interfere if ejection becomes an immediate
DOWN AIRCRAFT PROCEDURES
If one aircraft in a flight of two or more develops difficulties such that the pilot or pilots must eject, the
responsibility of coordinating search and rescue (SAR) falls in order to the following aviator: 1) senior
instructor in the flight, 2) any instructor in the area with both the crash scene and remaining members
of the flight in sight, 3) the senior student in the flight, 4) any airborne, winged aviator identifying himself