distance to lead while working off "angles" to align the fuselages. Once the wingman has achieved bearing
line and fuselage alignment, he should step-up and proceed with the CV join. The goal of this procedure is to
teach the student to use lead/lag principles for rendezvous while maintaining a constant airspeed. If the lead
obtains visual contact first, he may call "visual" and describe his relative position from the wingman over the
radio to help the wingman gain sight of the lead. The wingman may use angle of bank as required during the
day but is limited to no more than 45 degrees at night.
Fuel-check signals should be passed during two occasions: when the lead is exchanged and prior to returning to the
field. To determine the flight's fuel state, the lead passes the fuel-check signal, and the wingman passes his fuel
quantity rounded to the closest 100 lbs. The lead uses the lowest fuel state for planning purposes and for
communicating the fuel state of the flight to other aircraft or a controlling agency.
Parade position is used for flight in congested areas,
instrument approaches, and, in general, at any time when
the formation is likely to be critically observed. Parade
formation presents two advantages: 1) it provides good
visual communication between aircraft making it easier for
the lead to maintain positive control, and 2) it presents a
professional military appearance. The disadvantages are:
1) the formation is less maneuverable than a single aircraft
or a tactical formation, 2) the wingman constantly adjusts
power which results in fatigue and higher fuel consumption,
and 3) it restricts the wingman's lookout doctrine.
As a wingman flying parade position, maintain
approximately a 30-degree bearing by sighting down the
leading edge of the lead's wingline with 5 ft of stepdown
and a lateral separation of 3 ft, as in Figure 19. You can tell
when you are in position by 1) sighting down the leading
edge of lead's wing, 2) estimating stepdown by seeing
equal portions of the top and bottom of the wing, and 3)
maintaining wingtip separation by aligning leading corner of
stabilator tip cap with exposed portion of exhaust nozzle.
Also as wingman, maintain parade position by coordinating
AOB, pitch, and power. Use AOB to maintain wingtip
separation, pitch to control stepdown, and power to control
the 30-degree bearing. Maintain position by coordinating
AOB and power.
To maintain parade position, you must remain relaxed and
scan the lead's entire aircraft. By keeping the aircraft
trimmed, you need apply only slight stick pressures to maintain position. Anticipate all error corrections, and correct
immediately to minimize the error. The perfect parade position is transitory, and every correction has a corresponding
re-correction. Because the T-45 has more inertia and different power response than the T-34, power corrections
require a longer time to take effect. Also because the cruise airspeed of the T-45 is greater than the T-34, you need
smaller pitch or AOB adjustments to correct for similar errors.
NOTE: With proper step-down, only the first 3-5 vortex generator on top of lead's wing should be visible to the