In order to roll out of the turn, the lead rolls using parade rate of roll. The wingman matches the lead's rate
of roll while rotating about his own longitudinal axis and reduces power to maintain the parade bearing. If
power is not reduced when rolling out, the wingman will go acute.
IFR parade may be used when the section is penetrating clouds and during instrument approaches. In
contrast to the VFR turn away, the wingman rotates about the lead's longitudinal axis while matching the
lead's rate of roll and maintaining parade position. The wingman's position on the lead remains the same
as in straight and level flight. Known as the "welded wing" concept, this provides the wingman a point of
reference to avoid possible disorientation.
The IFR turn away initially requires more power than the VFR turn away because the wingman's relative
position is above the lead in addition to being outside of the lead's radius of turn. If power is not added
when entering the turn, the wingman will go sucked. Conversely, when the wingman rolls out of the IFR
parade turn away, he will initially require a larger power reduction than the roll-out from the VFR turn
For the formation to meet operational maneuverability requirements, the wingman must be able to change
positions within the formation. The "Box" type crossunder (Figure 22) will be utilized in the early Formation
stages until your first cruise formation flight (parade form). Then the "V" type crossunder (Figure 23) will be
This crossunder will give the wingman practice in maneuvering his aircraft around the lead's and will
demonstrate the importance of recognizing relative motion and smooth control of the aircraft. After
receiving the crossunder signal from the lead, make power and attitude corrections to simultaneously
move straight back and down until 10 ft of nose-to-tail and 15 ft of vertical separation is achieved.
Visually, the wingman should slide back until looking approximately down the leading edge of the
horizontal stabilator for proper nose-to-tail reference. Then initiate a slight wing dip to start moving the
aircraft to the other side of the lead. Maintain the front portion of the MDC cord on the underside of the
lead's intakes. Stop the aircraft on the other side of the lead with 10 ft of nose-to-tail and 15 ft of stepdown.
Add power and noseup pitch to simultaneously drive up and forward into parade position.